Mass Tourism: Tourism boom and bust in urban governance (2016-2050)

In this project we contribute to the increasing body of knowledge on mass tourism and specifically to the literatures focusing on local governance aimed to tackle the perceived problems caused by tourism. We aim to deepen the understanding of tourismand the possibilities and limits to coordinate, regulate, steer and control it in urban governance by answering the following questions:

  1. What is the public support for the increasing presence of tourists and tourism as a growing sector? By answering this question, we aim to map the increasing tensions between different stakeholders in and over places.
  2. How is tourism as a problem defined, by whom and why? Who is responsible for the agenda setting of tourism as a problem? How is tourism problematised? Is it really only mass tourism that is the problem? What are the reality effects of these problem framings? To answer these questions, we analyse the consequences of different problem framings about the way the tourism is dealt with in urban governance.
  3. Which attempts are taken to influence tourism and are these attempts successful? How is mass tourism coordinated, regulated, steered and controlled by governments, companies, citizens and NGOs?
  4. How does mass tourism materialise in places, spaces and landscapes? What are the social and spatial consequences of the presence of tourists/tourism? Using research by design we try to envision alternative scenarios, visions and solutions.

Project coordinators: Martijn Duineveld and Ko Koens  

Project results

Papers

In progress.

Master Thesis

Jakobs, T. (2018) Tourism Governance in Amsterdam: A Discourse Analysis. Wageningen University Master Thesis: Netherlands, 2018.

Wylick. Laura van. (2019) Public Problems, Local Solutions : A Case Study on Mass Tourism Discourse & Governance in the Damstraat, Amsterdam; Wageningen University Master Thesis: Netherlands

Neugebauer, Ruby (2019) Spatial distribution: A powerful discourse in the debate on city tourism? Wageningen University Master Thesis: Netherlands

Blogs

Duineveld, M and K. Koens (2019) Lang leve het massatoerisme! Over het innovatief potentieel van toerisme

Neringa, K. (2019) Re-learning about Amsterdam, mass tourism and ‘academic myself’

Events

Re-learning public space | An Action Research Event | Amsterdam | 28th – 30th June, 2018

Relevant sources

Academic papers

Alexis, P. (2017). Over-Tourism and Anti-Tourist Sentiment: An Exploratory Analysis and Discussion. Ovidius University Annals, Economic Sciences Series, 17(2), 288-293.

Boissevain, J. (1996). Coping with tourists: European reactions to mass tourism (Vol. 1)Providence, Oxford: Berghahn Books.

Dumbrovská, V. (2017). Urban Tourism Development in Prague: From Tourist Mecca to Tourist Ghetto. In N. Bellini & C. Pasquinelli (Eds.), Tourism in the City (pp. 275–283). Springer International Publishing.

Fava, N., & Rubio, S. P. (2017). From Barcelona: The Pearl of the Mediterranean to Bye Bye Barcelona. In N. Bellini & C. Pasquinelli (Eds.), Tourism in the City (pp. 285–295). Springer International Publishing.

Glasson, J. (1994). Oxford: a heritage city under pressure. Visitors, impacts and management responses. Tourism Management, 15(2), 137–144.

Gutiérrez, J., García-Palomares, J. C., Romanillos, G., & Salas-Olmedo, M. H. (2017). The eruption of Airbnb in tourist cities: Comparing spatial patterns of hotels and peer-to-peer accommodation in Barcelona.Tourism Management, 62, 278–291.

Koens, K., & Postma, A. (2017). Understanding and Managing Visitor Pressure in Urban Tourism. A Study into the Nature and Methods used to Manage Visitor Pressure in Six Major European Cities, CELTH, Leeuwarden/Breda/Vlissingen.

Pons, P. O. (2016). Cultures of mass tourism: doing the Mediterranean in the age of banal mobilities. Routledge.

Popp, M. (2012). Positive and Negative Urban Tourist Crowding: Florence, Italy. Tourism Geographies, 14(1), 50-72.

Postma, A., & Schmuecker, D. (2017). Understanding and overcoming negative impacts of tourism in city destinations: conceptual model and strategic framework. Journal of Tourism Futures, 3(2), 144-156.

Reid, D. G. (2003). Tourism, globalization and development: Responsible tourism planning:Pluto Press. http://shora.tabriz.ir/Uploads/83/cms/user/File/657/E_Book/Tourism/Tourism%20Globalization%20and%20Development.pdf

Santana-Jiménez, Y., & Hernández, J. M. (2011). Estimating the effect of overcrowding on tourist attraction: The case of Canary Islands.Tourism Management, 32(2), 415-425.

Turner, L., & Ash, J. (1975). “The” Golden Hordes: International Tourism and the Pleasure Periphery. Constable Limited.

Urry, J. (2002). The tourist gaze. London, Thousands Oaks & New Delhi.

Vainikka, V. (2013). Rethinking mass tourism. Tourist Studies, 13(3), 268-286.

Van der Borg, J., Costa, P., & Gotti, G. (1996). Tourism in European heritage cities.Annals of Tourism Research, 23(2), 306–321.

Zuelow, E. (2015). A history of modern tourism. Palgrave Macmillan.

Consultancy reports

McKinsey & Company and World Travel & Tourism Council. (2017). Coping with success. Managing overcrowding in tourism destinations. (n.p.): McKinsey & Company and World Travel & Tourism Council. https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/policy-research/coping-with-success—managing-overcrowding-in-tourism-destinations-2017.pdf

Milano, C. (2017). Over-tourism and Tourism-phobia: Global trends and local contexts.Barcelona: Ostelea School of Tourism & Hospitality https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323174488_Overtourism_and_Tourismphobia_Global_trends_and_local_contexts

OECD. (2018). OECD Tourism Trends and Policies 2018.Paris: OECD Publishing. IPK International. (2018).ITB world travel trends report 2017 / 2018. Boom or bust? Where is tourism heading? Berlin: Messe Berlin GmbH. http://www.oecd.org/cfe/tourism/oecd-tourism-trends-and-policies-20767773.htm

(In Dutch) Postma, A., & Koens, K. (2016). Toeristische druk op stedelijke bestemmingen. Het perspectief van bewoners. In CBS (Ed.), Trendrapport toerisme, recreatie en vrije tijd 2016 (pp. 208-212). Nieuwegein: NRIT Media, CBS, NBTC Holland Marketing, CELTH. https://www.cbs.nl/-/media/_pdf/2016/48/trendrapport%20toerisme%20recreatie%20en%20vrije%20tijd%202016.pdf

(In Dutch) Westerbeek, H., Koens, K., & Melissen, F. (2017). Smart City Hospitality: Een mogelijke weg naar duurzamer stedelijk toerisme. In K. De Bruijn, T. Vermeulen, D. Korteweg Maris, M. Rooijackers, K. van der Morst, N. Heerschap, … K. van Wijk (Eds.), Trendrapport toerisme, recreatie en vrije tijd 2017. Nieuwegein: NRIT Media.https://www.cbs.nl/-/media/_pdf/2017/47/trendrapport_deel_2.pdf

Newspaper articles and websites

(In Dutch) Amsterdam gaat de drukte in de stad ‘managen’. Retrieved from http://www.delaatstemeter.nl/kennisnetwerken/amsterdam-gaat-drukte-stad-managen/

(In Dutch) Amsterdam kiest Movares voor Crowd Monitoring Systeem. Retrieved from https://movares.nl/nieuws/amsterdam-kiest-movares-voor-crowd-monitoring-systeem/

(In Dutch) Amsterdam wil de massa’s ‘wegmasseren’. Retrieved from https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2017/04/13/amsterdam-wil-de-massas-wegmasseren-8213817-a1554618

Anti-tourism movement rising around European cities. Retrieved from https://www.tourism-review.com/anti-tourism-organization-launched-news10572

Backpacker, Go Home: How Tourism Is Ruining Everything. Retrieved from https://www.thedailybeast.com/backpacker-go-home-how-tourism-is-ruining-everything

Ban freedom camping, impose bed tax on tourists. Retrieved from https://www.stuff.co.nz/travel/80279924/mike-yardley-ban-freedom-camping-impose-bad-tax-in-tourists

Barcelona adds Segway ban to curbs on tourism. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/travel/2017/aug/11/barcelona-spain-anti-tourism-protest-segway-ban

Berlin Has Banned Airbnb. Retrieved from http://www.huhmagazine.co.uk/11457/berlin-has-banned-airbnb

Busting the boom: why Barcelona wants to curb mass tourism – reporter. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HGK0RY1ej6Y

Crowd management & crowd control. Retrieved from http://www.kcev.nl/oto/opleiden/crowd-management-crowd-control/

(In Dutch) De opkomst van het massatoerisme. Retrieved from http://www.historischnieuwsblad.nl/nl/artikel/5724/de-opkomst-van-het-massatoerisme.html

(In Dutch) ‘De stad zag de gevaren niet op tijd’. Retrieved from http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2016/04/12/de-stad-zag-de-gevaren-niet-op-tijd-1607667-a564245

(In Dutch) Hong Kong wil af van massatoerisme. Retrieved from http://fd.nl/economie-politiek/1132408/hongkong-wil-af-van-massatoerisme

Iceland plans Airbnb restrictions amid tourism explosion. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/30/iceland-plans-airbnb-restrictions-amid-tourism-explosion?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

Is mass tourism destroying our cities? Bye Bye Barcelona documentary investigates. Retrieved from https://destinationthink.com/mass-tourism-cities-bye-bye-barcelona-documentary/

Japan wants ‘Chinese-only’ zones at tourist attractions to limit bad behaviour. Retrieved from https://mashable.com/2016/04/13/japan-angered-by-chinese-tourists/?europe=true&utm_cid=mash-com-fb-asia-link&utm_cid=mash-com-fb-asia-link#m.5l.GtTwaqT

(In Dutch) Kuddedieren. Over het toerisme in de hoofdstad. Retrieved from http://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2015/05/11/over-toeristen-a1416376

(In Dutch) Leve het massatoerisme. Retrieved from http://www.volkskrant.nl/archief/leve-het-massatoerisme~a3486955/

Mallorca graffiti fury: ‘Tourists go home. Refugees welcome’. Retrieved from https://www.thelocal.es/20160412/tourists-go-home-refugees-welcome-graffiti-appears-in-mallorca

(In Dutch) Massatoerisme is funest voor Amsterdam. Retrieved from http://www.hospitality-management.nl/massatoerisme-is-funest-voor-amsterdam-15840

Mass tourism affects major travel destinations in Europe. Retrieved from https://www.tourism-review.com/mass-tourism-hit-santorini-venice-and-ibiza-news5139

Mass tourism is at a tipping point – but we’re all part of the problem. Retrieved fromhttps://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/aug/11/tourism-tipping-point-travel-less-damage-destruction

Mounting opposition to Bali mass tourism project. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/environment/the-coral-triangle/2016/mar/22/mounting-opposition-to-bali-mass-tourism-project

(In Dutch) ‘Natuur de grote verliezer’. Retrieved from http://www.telegraaf.nl/watuzegt/25816324/__Niks_mis_met_massatoerisme__.html

One of Thailand’s Most Beautiful Islands Is Being Closed Before Tourists Ruin It Forever. Retrieved from http://time.com/4336737/thailand-island-koh-tachai-similan-phangnga-ranong-tourism-travelers/?xid=fbshare

(In Dutch) Portfolio Safestival. Retrieved from http://www.safestival.nl/#portfolio

Taxing tourists to save our species. Retrieved from https://www.stuff.co.nz/travel/news/80013833/taxing-tourists-to-save-our-species

The ‘Airbnb effect’: is it real, and what is it doing to a city like Amsterdam? Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/oct/06/the-airbnb-effect-amsterdam-fairbnb-property-prices-communities

Wish you weren’t here: What can we do about over-tourism? Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/09/what-can-we-do-about-overtourism/

(In Dutch) 3 opvallende strategieën spreiding toerisme. Retrieved from http://www.nritmedia.nl/kennisbank/36611/3_opvallende_strategie%C3%ABn_spreiding_toerisme/

(Urban) Governance

Beunen, R., Van Assche, K., & Duineveld, M. (2016). Evolutionary Governance Theory. Springer

Hall, C. M. (2008).Tourism planning: Policies, processes and relationships (second ed.). Dorchester: Pearson Education.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00984-1

Duim, van der, R., Lamers, M., & van Wijk, J. (2015). Novel institutional arrangements for tourism, conservation and development in Eastern and Southern Africa.In Institutional arrangements for conservation, development and tourism in Eastern and Southern Africa (pp. 1-16). Springer, Dordrecht.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9529-6

Dredge, D. (2010). Place change and tourism development conflict: Evaluating public interest. Tourism management, 31(1), 104-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2009.01.004

Lapeyre, R. (2011).Governance structures and the distribution of tourism income in Namibian communal lands: a new institutional framework. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, 102(3), 302-315. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9663.2011.00665.x

Pellis, A., Lamers, M., & Van der Duim, R. (2015). Conservation tourism and landscape governance in Kenya: the interdependency of three conservation NGOs. Journal of Ecotourism, 14(2-3), 130-144.https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2015.1083028

Russo, A. P., & Scarnato, A. (2017). “Barcelona in common”: A new urban regime for the 21st-century tourist city? Journal of Urban Affairs, 0(0), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/07352166.2017.1373023

Tourism general

Beerli, A., & Martin, J. D. (2004). Tourists’ characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations: a quantitative analysis—a case study of Lanzarote, Spain. Tourism Management, 25(5), 623-636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2003.06.004

Chettiparamb, A., & Thomas, H. (2012). Editorial: Tourism and spatial planning. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 4(3), 215-220. https://dio.org/10.1080/19407963.2012.726157

Farias, I. (2012). Destinations as virtual objects of tourist communication. In R. van der Duim, C. Ren, & G. T. Johannesson (Eds.), Actor-Network Theory and Tourism (pp. 128-145). London: Routledge.https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781136336201

Franklin, A. (2004). Tourism as an ordering: Towards a new ontology of tourism. Tourist studies, 4(3), 277-301.https://doi.org/10.1177/1468797604057328

Hall, C. M. (2014). Tourism and social marketing. London: Routledge.https://www.routledge.com/Tourism-and-Social-Marketing/Hall/p/book/9780415576666

Koens, K., & Thomas, R. (2016). “You know that’s a rip-off”: policies and practices surrounding micro-enterprises and poverty alleviation in South African township tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(12), 1641–1654. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2016.1145230

Krippendorf, J. (1987). The Holiday Makers: Understanding the Impact of Leisure and Travel. London: Heinemann Educational Books.https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(88)90039-4

Law, J. (1984). On the methods of long-distance control: vessels, navigation and the Portuguese route to India. The Sociological Review, 32(1_suppl), 234-263. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1984.tb00114.x

Rebollo, J. F. V., & Baidal, J. A. I. (2003). Measuring Sustainability in a Mass Tourist Destination: Pressures, Perceptions and Policy Responses in Torrevieja, Spain. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 11(2–3), 181–203. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580308667202

Weaver, D. (2014). The Sustainable Development of Tourism. In A. A. Lew, C. M. Hall, & A. M. Williams (Eds.), The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Tourism (pp. 524-534). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons. https://www.wiley.com/en-us/The+Wiley+Blackwell+Companion+to+Tourism-p-9781118474488

Wickens, E. (2002). The sacred and the profane: A tourist typology. Annals of tourism research, 29(3), 834-851.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(01)00088-3

Fiction

Conrad, J. (1996). Heart of darkness.Palgrave Macmillan, New York. https://www.bol.com/nl/p/heart-of-darkness/1001004000760144/?suggestionType=featured_product&suggestedFor=heart%20of%20darkness%20%20%20joseph%20conrad&originalSearchContext=media_all&originalSection=main

Dyer, G. (2016). White Sands: Experiences from the Outside World. Text Publishing. https://www.bol.com/nl/p/white-sands/9200000064904407/?suggestionType=typedsearch&bltgh=ojMiiXhUz5ZOb4AECjpB9Q.1.2.ProductTitle

Dyer, G. (2012). Yoga for People Who Can’t be Bothered to Do it.Canongate Books.

https://www.bol.com/nl/p/yoga-for-people-who-can-t-be-bothered-to-do-it/9200000005038062/

Garland, A. (2007). The beach.Penguin UK. https://www.bol.com/nl/p/the-beach/9200000052961631/?suggestionType=typedsearch&bltgh=jNn5bNE4nI5GzOuUv4RCCg.1.2.ProductTitle

Naipaul, V. S. (2001). In a free state.Pan Macmillan.https://www.bol.com/nl/p/in-a-free-state/1001004010959876/?suggestionType=typedsearch&bltgh=krsuHHU1oWFEZPqZ0aNL5w.1.2.ProductImage

Thompson, H. S. (2011). The Rum Diary: A Novel.Simon and Schuster. https://www.bol.com/nl/f/the-rum-diary/30360258/