lectures

95 Introducing Evolutionary Governance Theory

Key words: governance | Luhmann | Foucault | evolution | change | steering | planning | communication | context | dependencies |

96 Object and subject formation in governance

Key words: objects | subjects | enactment | constructing | absence, presence and non-existence | Latour | Foucault | Luhmann | Harrie Von Haberstutzknaufdorf |

97 How to think critically for ‘the quality of life’. Sustainability and a 1000 other floating signifiers

Key words: Reflexivity | First as Tragedy, Then as Farce | The Modernist Solution (‘repair kit’ thinking) | Sustainability, the Post – Modernist solution (‘deconstruction’) | Reflexivity for the quality of life?

98 Planning Like a State: How modernism in planning and design failed

Key words: steering | control | the limits of planning

99 Oh Behave! The normal and the abnormal in space and place

Key words: hetero normativity | normal | abnormal | place making | exclusion | claiming space |

101 Resistance!

Key words: contested landscapes | resistance | the constitution of place | productive conflicts

  • Duineveld, M., & Van Assche, K. (2011). The power of tulips: constructing nature and heritage in a contested landscape. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, 13(2), 1-20.
  • Duineveld, M., During, R., Dam, R., & Zande, A. (2010). The importance of being nimby. Een essay over erfgoed en burgerverzet. Deel 4 in de reeks Burgers en Landschap. Wageningen: Wageningen UR.
  • Duineveld, M., Van Assche, K. A. M., & Beunen, R. (2013). Self-referential conflicts. Contested Land Use and the Strategic Interplay of Competing Discourses. Wageningen University Working Papers in Evolutionary Governance Theory, 10.
  • Rose, M. (2002). The seductions of resistance: power, politics, and a performative style of systems. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 20, 383-400.
  • Routledge, P. (1996). The Third Space as Critical Engagement. Antipode, 28(4), 399-419.
  • Routledge, P. (1997). The imagineering of resistance: Pollok Free State and the practice of postmodern politics. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 22(3).
  • Scott, J. C. (1990). Domination and the arts of resistance: hidden transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press

102 “Hit them when it hurts’ and the limits of resistance

Key words: Resistance in a highly differentiated world | Luhmann | Influence | Making a difference that makes a difference

  • Bryant, L.R. (2012) McKenzie Wark: How Do You Occupy an Abstraction? @ wordpress.com
  • Luhmann, N. (1989). Ecological Communication. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Moeller, H.G. (2006). Luhmann explained: from souls to systems. Chicago, IL: Open Court.
  • Van Assche, K., & Verschraegen, G. (2008). The Limits of Planning: Niklas Luhmann’s Systems Theory and the Analysis of Planning and Planning Ambitions. Planning Theory, 7(3), 263-283.

103 Do artifacts have politics?

Key words: Time-space behaviour | Park and visitor management | The morality of things | The power of design

104 The panoptic society

Key words: Panoptic | Surveillance | Inclusion and Exclusion | Power | The Gaze | Discipline and Power

105 Space and Place (Can you love place? (and what about space?))

Key words: Sence of place | Topophilia | Tuan | Relph | Love and Hate | Planning and design with place in mind

106 Postmodernism for beginners (and dummies and idiots too)  

Key words: postmodernism | constructivism | second order observation |

  • Duineveld, M., & Van Assche, K. (2011). The power of tulips: constructing nature and heritage in a contested landscape. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, 13(2), 1-20.
  • Fuchs, S. (2001). Against essentialism: a theory of culture and society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Luhmann, N. (1993). Deconstruction as Second-Order Observing. New Literary History, 24(1), 763-782.
  • Minca, C. (2001). Postmodern temptations Postmodern Geography: Theory and Praxis (C. Minca, ed.) (pp. 196 – 225): Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Oakes, T., & Minca, C. (2004). Tourism, modernity, and postmodernity. Companion to Tourism Geography (A. Lew, M. Hall, and A.Williams, eds), 280-290.
  • Van Assche, K. (2004). Signs in time. An interpretive account of urban planning and design, the people and their histories. Wageningen: Wageningen University, 30-40.

107 Nature images: nature or natures

Key words: Nature images | the construction of nature | multiple meanings | conflicts

  • Buijs, A. E. (2009). Lay People’s Images of Nature: Comprehensive Frameworks of Values, Beliefs, and Value Orientations. Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal, 22, 417 – 432.
  • Buijs, A. (2009). Natuurbeelden. Publieke visies op natuur en de consequenties voor het natuurbeheer (pp. 9-16, 25-30): Wageningen UR.
  • Bas Haring over Plastic panda’s: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qDu2ci26pUI

108 The multiple meanings and uses of heritage

Key words: heritage | inclusion | exclusion |

  • Duineveld, M. (2006). Van oude dingen, de mensen, die voorbij gaan. Over de voorwaarden meer recht te kunnen doen aan de door burgers gewaardeerde cultuurhistories. Delft: Eburon.
  • Duineveld, M., Kersten, G., & Jutstra, R. (2004). Wat cultuurhistorie is. In H. Venhuizen (Ed.), Geest en grond (pp. 367-379). Rotterdam: Bureau Venhuizen.
  • Felder, M., Duineveld, M., & Van Assche, K. (2014). Absence/presence and the ontological politics of heritage: the case of Barrack 57. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 16.
  • Van Assche, K., & Duineveld, M. (2013). The good, the bad and the self- referential: Heritage planning and the productivity of difference. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 19(1), 1-15.

109 Cultural geography for reflexivity & the practices of landscape architecture and planning

Key words: geography | roles of knowledge | reflexivity in planning and design |

  • Beunen, R., Assche, K., van, & Duineveld, M. (2013). The importance of reflexivity in planning and design education. Wageningen 3IG.
  • Van Assche, K., Beunen, R., Duineveld, M., & de Jong, H. (2013). Co-evolutions of planning and design: Risks and benefits of design perspectives in planning systems. Planning Theory, 12(2), 177-198.
  • Van Assche, K., Beunen, R., & Duineveld, M. (2012). Performing failure and success: Dutch planning experiences. Public Administration, 90(3), 567–581.

110 Discourse analysis, an introduction

Key words: methods | discourse | Foucault | Knowledge/ Power | Bla bla bla bla bla.

  • Foucault, M. (1972). The Archaeology of Knowledge & The Discourse on Language. New York: Pantheon Books.
  • Howarth, D. (2000). Discourse. Buckingham: Open University Press

111 Reflections? Reflexivity! & the joy of second order observation

The past decades brought major changes in planning and design practices as well as in the scientific reflection on these practices. Within the planning and design disciplines, the positivist belief in objective, value free knowledge enabling governmental actors to steer spatial organization, is gradually replaced by approaches in which planning and design processes and practices themselves have become objects of scientific investigation. We argue that planning and design cannot tackle these issues without a deeper and more systematic self-reflection, a second order observation, on the disciplines, and on the role of planners and designers in society. We will show how research and outreach can play a transformative role in the development and delivery of planning and design curricula. A stronger focus on reflexivity in planning and design is desirable because this can contribute to the sharper delineation of art, science, and mere accepted practice.

Key words: roles of knowledge | reflexivity in planning and design | Luhmann | Fuchs

Beunen, R., Assche, K., van, & Duineveld, M. (2013). The importance of reflexivity in planning and design education. Wageningen 3IG.

Bourdieu, P. (2003). Participant Objectivation. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 9(2), 281-294.

Felder, M., Duineveld, M., & Van Assche, K. (2014). Absence/presence and the ontological politics of heritage: the case of Barrack 57. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 16.

Fuchs, S. (2001). Against essentialism: a theory of culture and society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. C1 and 2

Luhmann, N. (1993). Deconstruction as Second-Order Observing. New Literary History, 24(1), 763-782.

111 Theory for the quality of life. Some very positive remarks on the use of theory as a lens

‘At the most general level, theory seems to refer to pretty much anything that is going on in our minds. Despite its slightly imposing implications, theory is actually a word that is used frequently in everyday speech. We say things like “Tim has a theory about that” or “In theory, that might work – but not in practice”. Here theory refers to the realm of ideas. It is opposed to “practice” which itself often appears to mean “reality”. Theory is thinking and practice is doing. This opposition leads many to think of theory as impractical and unreal. (…) Theory, in the academic sense, usually refers to organized and patterned sets of ideas rather than spur-of-the-moment thoughts. Theories are more or less organized ways of ordering the world which exist in our minds and which we share with others. They have a collective and enduring intellectual quality. (…) One metaphor that is frequently used to describe theory is the “lens”. Think of theory as a lens that helps us see some things clearly – it imposes conceptual order on messy reality – it brings an indistinct blur into focus. Theory turns the perceived and experienced world into an “interpreted world”.’ (Cresswell, T. (2013)

Key words: theory | abstractions | critical theory | danger

Literature

  • Cresswell, T. (2013). Geographic thought: a critical introduction. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Chapter 1.
  • Fuchs, S. (2001) Against essentialism: a theory of culture and society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. C1 and 2

112 Planning and design cultures and roles

There is no such thing as planning or design that is fixes and the same everywhere and the existence of The Landscape Architect or The Planner can easily revealed to be a myth, once we become more reflexive. Planning and designing does not necessarily need actors that are labelled planners or designers and it does not necessarily rely on plans. This might sound like a depressing statement for planning and design students, but don’t worry. Roles and identities of actors in society, in governance, in planning are always constituted within that society and never universal, never everywhere the same, and they are constantly evolving. This opens the door for other ways of understanding and analysing the roles of planners and designers and their plans and designs in society. We will argue that the roles of planners, designers depend on the particular context, time, place and planning culture in which these roles are constructed. Planners or designers in the USA are likely to be different from planners and designers in many European welfare states or the communist-capitalist societies of the ‘Far East’. Sometimes the role and identities of subjects labelled planners or urbanists or designers differ, sometimes roles and identities overlap but the labels differ too: ‘I am not a planner, I am a landscape architect!’ ‘Ok fine, good for you, but we will only hire urbanists’. The roles of plans and designs are just as contingent in time and place as the roles of the planners and designer producing them. Sometimes, in some places, piles of plans and designs are made by many, but they are never ‘realised’ or ‘implemented’. Elsewhere planners hardly make any plans but mainly try to change and adapt the legal system, as a form of planning. To understand the roles of planners, plans, designs, designers it is helps you to become a context sensitive observer that constantly reflects on the changing roles, including your own, without taking them for granted a priori.

Key words: roles of designers (like landscape architects) and planners | subject formation | planning cultures |

Literature

  • Childs, M. C. (2010). A Spectrum of Urban Design Roles. Journal of Urban Design, 15(1), 1-19. doi: 10.1080/13574800903429357
  • Dijk, v., Terry. (2011). Imagining future places: How designs co-constitute what is, and thus influence what will be. Planning Theory. doi: 10.1177/1473095210386656
  • Lenzholzer, S. (2010). Designing atmospheres: research and design for thermal comfort in Dutch urban squares. Wageningen: Wageningen UR.
  • Madanipour, A. (2006). Roles and challenges or Urban Design. Journal of Urban Design, 11(2), 173-193.
  • Van Assche, K., Beunen, R., Duineveld, M., & de Jong, H. (2013). Co-evolutions of planning and design: Risks and benefits of design perspectives in planning systems. Planning Theory, 12(2), 177-198. doi: 10.1177/1473095212456771

 

113 No escape possible: Path-, inter- and goal dependencies in planning and design

Planning (and design) we define as the coordination of policies and practices affecting spatial organization. We understand planning as a particular form of governance. To reflect on planning and design practices we always have to understand the governance context in which planning and design takes place. To deepen our understanding of ‘context’ we distinguish between three different dependencies that shape the course of planning and design. Dependencies create rigidities, but do not imply determinism. They also create flexibilities and there are always options open, there is always a measure of contingency and freedom. We can distinguish path dependence, goal dependence and interdependence. Path dependency is rigidity in governance paths whereby the next step in governance evolution is restricted by the existing governance configuration and by the history of governance leading to that configuration. Interdependency is the restriction on action for an actor imposed by the relations with others. Interdependency can create rigidity in a governance path caused by the specific set of relations between actors at one point in time. Goal dependency is the influence of plans and policies embedding collective goals on the present, on the co- evolution of actors and institutions, power and knowledge. Visions, scenarios and plans are rarely fully implemented, but often have an impact on governance and on the realities governance affects. (http://governancetheory.com/egt-glossary-2/)

Key words: dependencies | governance | the future matters | productive fictions

Van Assche, K., et al. (2014). Rural development and the entwining of dependencies: Transition as evolving governance in Khorezm, Uzbekistan. Futures, 63(0), 75-85. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2014.08.006

Van Assche, K., Van., Beunen, R., & Duineveld, M. (2014). Evolutionary Governance Theory. An Introduction. Heidelberg: Springer, Chapter 4

 

114 Power/knowledge in planning and design processes

An important reflexive approach to planning has been introduced by Bjent Flyvbjerg. In his book ‘Rationality and power’ he, as a modern day Machiavelli, studied how power ‘really’ works in the Danish town of Aalborg, in northern Jutland. His study stretched over years. Flyvbjerg studied The Aalborg project aimed at ‘integrating environmental and social concerns into city politics and planning’. The Aalborg project tried among other things, to solve the problem of the increasing impact of cars on the old city centre. Following Foucault who considered power not as something one possesses, but as a web of relations, he studied how power is exercised, to understand what ‘governmental rationalities are at work when those who govern govern’. After 200 pages of detailed descriptions of the Aalborg project, quoting from interviews, archives, and key informants, he concludes with 10 propositions. The most important one being the reversal of Bacon’s dictum ‘knowledge is power’. Instead Flyvbjerg, much in line with Foucault, Nietzsche and Machiavelli, proclaims: power defines reality. In the ensuing propositions he debunks the idea of context-independent rationality and clearly outlines the strategic and conflicting roles and forms of rationality in the exercise of power.

Key words: Knowledge/power | governance | relational theory | Foucault |

Duineveld, M., Van Assche, K., & Beunen, R. (2013). Making things irreversible. Object stabilization in urban planning and design. Geoforum, 46, 16-24.

Flyvbjerg, B. (1998). Rationality and Power: Democracy in Practice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Flyvbjerg, B. (2002). Bringing power to planning research. One researcher’s praxis story. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21, 353-366.

Foucault, M. (1998). The will to knowledge. The history of sexuality: 1. London: Penguin Books.

Van Assche, K., Duineveld, M., & Beunen, R. (2014). Power and contingency in planning. Environment and Planning A, 46(10), 2385-2400.

 

 

 

Advertisements